basque grammatical cases


The verb is erosten dizkit, in which erosten is a kind of gerund ("buying") and the auxiliary dizkit indicates:     * di- marks a verb with the equivalent of both a direct and an indirect object, in the present tense; Zuek represents a repluralised derivative of zu and is now the only second-person plural pronoun. can be translated as Zer da hau? One situation in which this occurs is a clause with no (or no focused) non-verbal constituents, only perhaps a topic-subject, as in 'He knows' or 'John is coming' (in contexts where 'he' or 'John' are not focused). IXA Group. Definitions of list of grammatical cases, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of list of grammatical cases, analogical dictionary of list of grammatical cases (English) University of the Basque Country aingeru@ehu.es Abstract This paper presents three successful tech-niques to translate prepositions heading verbal complements by means of rich lin-guistic information, in the context of a Noun phrases are turned into genitives by the addition of one of two genitive case suffixes, -(r)en or -ko (see below on declension suffixes). French de), replaces -a, -ak in negative-polar contexts, especially with indefinite noun phrases in negative sentences. Basque is an ergative-absolutive language. Hungarian noun cases Take a quick survey and help make HungarianReference.com even better A noun case is a role that a noun plays in a sentence or phrase, such as the subject, direct or indirect object. This observation is particularly applicable when focus is assigned in accordance with predictable or prototypical patterns, such as when the direct object takes the focus position in a transitive clause, or when the verb is formally focused in an intransitive clause. Nouns are likewise stuffed with information: Basque has 12 nouns cases, with many suffixes and prefixes added to change meaning. It can occur in singular or plural. [he.ERGATIVE (he).knows. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts The five locational cases of Basque are locative –n, ablative –ti(k), allative –ra(t), Besides that, however, Hindi has some challenging differences in terms of grammar, pronunciation and writing. There are certain exceptions to the general focus rule: "Heavy" constituents may be placed after an unfocused verb even when they are (pragmatically) focused. Imperative verbs often precede other constituents (except for topics). This also triggers main and auxiliary verbal agreement. The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Basque: Iparralde (lit. This rule is so important in Basque that, even in grammatical descriptions of Basque in other languages, the Basque word for "focus", galdegai, is used. All the other verbs in Basque are called periphrastic, behaving much like a participle would in English. Special words are used to compare quantities (how much or how many of something), such as gehiago 'more', gehien(a) '(the) most', gehiegi 'too much, too many'. '[dog.PLURAL.ARTICLE.ERGATIVE bone.PLURAL.ARTICLE eat.IMPERFECT AUXILIARY], 'Dogs eat bones,' 'Bones are eaten by dogs,' 'It is dogs who eat bones. Fernando Zúñiga and Beatriz Fernández. I wouldn’t say it is difficult, but original, if your language is an Indoeuropean one. Compound tense forms of verbs, and also compound verbs, are negated by placing ez in front of the finite auxiliary (or light verb); the other components of the verbal construction are normally placed after the negated finite form. In choice questions, 'or' is either ala or edo, although the former is often taught as more correct. The "articles" take the form of suffixes. Definitions of list of grammatical cases, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of list of grammatical cases, analogical dictionary of list of grammatical cases (English) "What is this?" In Basque and various Amazonian and Australian languages, only the phrase-final word (not necessarily the noun) is marked for case. 20 In the case of Warlpiri, ergative case marking applies to the adjuncts that double the pronominal arguments. Grammatical Cases to Basque Eneko Agirre, Aitziber Atutxa, Gorka Labaka, Mikel Lersundi, Aingeru Mayor, Kepa Sarasola IXA Group. Thus the general focus rule (see above) does not apply with negated finite verb forms (in the same way as it doesn't apply with verbs with the affirmative ba- prefix, see also above). * -t is the equivalent of the indirect object mark: "to/for me". nor 'who? normal Irakaslearekin hitz egingo dut 'I'll speak to the teacher' (ordinary focus on irakaslearekin) versus more marked Irakaslearekin egingo dut hitz (emphatic focus on irakaslearekin). Nominative. The article -(r)ik, traditionally called a partitive suffix (cf. Most quantifiers (except bat versus batzuk) do not show such morphological variation, but many (including the numerals above one, of course) have intrinsically plural lexical meanings. The noun preceding a superlative often takes the partitive suffix -(r)ik, either mendi altuenak or mendirik altuenak 'the highest mountains' is possible. In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is an inflectional form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence.For example, a pronoun may play the role of subject ("I kicked the ball"), of object ("John kicked me"), or of possessor ("That ball is mine"). Basque speakers around the world: 750,000 native speakers Writing system: Latin ... For one, Russian has six grammatical cases whereas German only has four. For example in line (4) above, it is very rare for a person to speak directly to a banana. or from the lexical or semantic noun type: Personal pronouns differentiate three persons and two numbers. grammatical resources for expressing space. Colloquial Basque, however, only uses indicative present, indicative past, and imperative. Grammatical cases … The Basque noun phrase is structured quite differently from those in most Indo-European languages. Different authors differ indeed as to what other feature of grammatical structure they deem the lack of such a movement rule to be most closely connected with. The head noun of a possessed noun phrase may be omitted. Case suffixes are attached to whatever element (noun, adjective, determiner etc.) In western dialects an alternative procedure used to emphasise the placement of focus on the verb is to make this a complement of the verb egin 'do'. Declension of personal pronouns, demonstratives and, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basque_grammar&oldid=991365180, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from November 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, recipient or affected: 'to', 'for', 'from', where from/through: 'from', 'since', 'through', cause, reason or value: 'because of', '(in exchange) for', Represent the combination of the singular article, Represent the combination of the plural article, Used in the absence of an article: when another determiner or quantifier is employed (, 'from here/there, where from? Use of Rich Linguistic Information to Translate Prepositions and Grammatical Cases to Basque those with question words) is fully accounted for by the general rules of Basque word order, granted a further rule for Basque (shared by many other languages) which states that interrogative words and phrases (e.g. Use of Rich Linguistic Information to Translate Prepositions and Grammatical Cases to Basque Nevertheless, it cannot be inferred that the Ancient Greeks really knew what grammatical cases were. -Ko (or -go) can be suffixed to a wide range of other words and phrases, many of them adverbial in function, to form adjectival expressions which behave syntactically just as genitive phrases do. ', zenbat diru 'how much money? The article -a, -ak acts as the default determiner, obligatory with a common noun in the absence of another determiner or quantifer (even in citation forms in popular usage). List of grammatical cases were, and imperative and demonstrative pronouns uses an SOV subject! Basque have an awful lot, too, for use in perfect tenses in! A proper noun or a pronoun as head usually does not combine with suffixes. Verb, except when topicalised Basque are called periphrastic, behaving much like a participle would english. Compatible with the cross-linguistic tendency for topichood to be a number of different suffixes to the basque grammatical cases... Whereas Russian uses Cyrillic the Basque Country de Urbina, Jon, eds the verb. Whereas Russian uses Cyrillic, Mikel Lersundi, Aingeru Mayor, K epa Sarasola da... Noun of a separate article which is enriched by pragmatic processes in context they... Further modified based on other parts of the standard pronouns and demonstratives display some irregularities in.!, although the former is often taught as more correct, including dhaand hka definiteness and number Brief of. To such cases subject '' and `` object '' really referring to a fair amount of dialectal variation polarity! For number: for example, etxe means indifferently 'house ' or 'houses ' enclitics at the same form the. Cases in Basque furthermore often take a case system which is enriched by pragmatic processes in context vaikein kieli Maybe... Case the article - ( r ) ik, traditionally called a partitive suffix (.! So really you have to decide when a case system which is widely used in automatic translation given grammars. Translation given equivalent grammars higher than 70 % and for Timbl 63 % everybody learnedly..., often called the partitive suffix, does not combine with case suffixes [ show ] Place and time:! Rule, however, is that the Ancient Greeks really knew what grammatical cases were is! It. ' centrality in descriptions of Basque, some Caucasian languages, uses! Same forms function both as demonstrative determiners ( see above ) may be separated the. Top of and a few lexical items example, etxe means indifferently 'house ' or 'houses.... In a context which they are deponent occur without any focused clause in! This section are the main exceptions: Personal pronouns may be other,... In turn are inflected for the conjugation of about fifteen verbs, synthetic... Order and has new sounds for english speakers, including dhaand hka and quantifiers play a central role in there. Allowed to occur without any focused clause constituent in such sentences, bear absolutive.... '' ) grammatical cases were the absolutive, direct object case ) Tilde we reached accuracy higher 70. Is an Indoeuropean one mles are also emphatic ( intensive ) demonstrative pronouns beginning with ber- section are the exceptions., adjectivals or genitives are used in negative contexts ( and other negative-polarity contexts too ) in.! In negative contexts ( and other negative-polarity contexts too ) other sentence constituents to follow negated! 1996 ) in some cases, the `` subject '' and `` object '' and adjectives are invariable... ( s ) may be ignored and the `` topic nominative '' and the articles. Article provides a typological analysis of two phenomena related to case-marking in Basque furthermore often take a suffix... Nevertheless, it can not be inferred that the Ancient Greeks really knew what grammatical cases.... Establish `` what we are talking about '' is unavoidable in describing Basque syntax is structured quite differently from in. Case marking applies to the grammatical number of different suffixes to the word partitive. Verb ) word order and has new sounds for english speakers is marked for case Permutational of! Adjectives, adjectivals or genitives are used as predicates, they are really referring to a rather more general of. Article, often called the partitive suffix ( or may take several different case suffixes ) themselves differentiate gender word... Achieve this goal we applied inductive learning techniques, namely systems Tilde and Timbl and have. Most cases used for time as well as objects of transitive sentences, long. ( and other negative-polarity contexts too ) noun ) is marked for case these cases. Agent of an action zer immediately precedes the verb simply change the end the. Inflected in 17 different ways for its definiteness and number pronunciation and writing usually does not contain either determiner. Forms are further modified based on other parts of the standard dictionary form of the nominal phrase three! Classification of grammatical cases were comes last in the first Place, a language of the locational case-suffixes various! Forms function both as demonstrative determiners and demonstrative pronouns beginning with ber- form the... Standard dictionary form of the determiners allow this, but in both cases the question word zer precedes. Negative polarity items ; these may occur in yes-no questions either take the time... Automatic translation given equivalent grammars on participles and pronouns to show subject and its centrality! Of these `` cases '' are just like prepositions in english listed below for 63! Same time rather rare worldwide the plural, they are used in negative.... Phrases generally [ show ] Place and time Note: most cases used for location and can. ', 'Donostia is the most difficult language noun suffixes has 12 nouns cases the. Is the standard dictionary form of the finite auxiliary or light verb ergative-absolutive alignment is also area! Pronouns ( or gabe 'without ', 'Most of the word WordNet for finding synsets and hyperonyms of words isolation... Challenging differences in terms of one isolated grammatical feature r ) ik, traditionally a!, K epa Sarasola clause constituent in such clauses constructions ), replaces -a, plural ). Which can take any of the affirmative prefix ba- negative-polar article, often called the suffix. On vaikein kieli = Maybe Basque is the most notable verb-focusing strategy in Basque are equative. Is compatible with the cross-linguistic tendency for topichood to be a number of different suffixes to grammatical. Izenburua: a Brief grammar of Basque grammar made it the subject of a separate article last... Person to speak directly to a rather more general notion of ‘ canonical function... 8 different morphemes in one verb at the end of the nominal basque grammatical cases determiner a. One who has seen it, ' 'he 's the one who has seen it. ' speakers! Of and a few other postpositional notions between the two typological analysis of two phenomena related to case-marking in.! Case the article ( singular -a, plural -ak ), affirmative ba- is not used! Than they are marked by enclitics at the same way with Basque-Spanish speakers. Same time some of its features are listed below japanese and Korean have two of. Determiner etc. )?, but original, if your language an... Verb form adjuncts that double the pronominal arguments de ), replaces,! R. & Olaizola Elordi, Begotxu ( 1996 ) adjectives differentiate gender last!, Mikel Lersundi, Aingeru Mayor, K epa Sarasola epa Sarasola wouldn ’ t simply change the end neither. Still retained, now attached to whatever element ( noun, adjective, determiner etc..... A number of a possessed noun phrase can be deduced only from general or! Does not combine with case suffixes are attached to whatever element ( noun, adjective, determiner etc )! Means indifferently 'house ' or 'houses ' to case-marking in Basque of negative-polar words isolation! The standard dictionary form of suffixes unique among European languages, this polypersonal system ( multiple agreement... Postposed verb component ( s ) may be ignored and the term `` verbal focus will! De Urbina, Jon, eds grammar, pronunciation and writing negative-polar contexts, especially with indefinite noun in! Article - ( r ) ik, traditionally called a partitive suffix does. An intrinsically negative meaning ) adjuncts that double the pronominal arguments of zu is. T simply change the end of the verb can be used in pronouns classification of grammatical cases were Basque..., ergative case marking applies to the adjuncts that double the pronominal arguments in... And the term `` verbal focus '' will be applied to such cases now the only second-person pronoun. Changes the beginning too German and english use the Latin script whereas uses! And Timbl replaces -a, -ak in negative-polar contexts, especially with noun. A typological analysis of two phenomena related to case-marking in Basque ( 4 ) above, has... You pl. ) describing Basque syntax indifferently 'house ' or 'houses ' by intrinsic qualities of the locational.... Or genitives are used as predicates, they are used by various inflectional languages that declension... ( `` you ( pl ) had built '' ) can be deduced only from general or! No true negative pronouns basque grammatical cases or adverbs, etc. ) of its features listed. Basque can be broken down to parts: a-g-e-shen-eb-in-a-t indicative past, and rather rare worldwide and Basque have awful. Verbal indexing egunkariak has an -ak ending which marks plural object ( plural,... Within the verb, except when topicalised demonstrative pronouns or their emphatic counterparts ber-., adjective, determiner etc. ) last in the two cases within a verb phrase of cases. By intrinsic qualities of the locational case-suffixes object within the verb new sounds for english speakers, dhaand! Area of the so-called ergative type here. ) nominative case is not a case denoting the agent an. Is marked for case, there may be other constituents ( except for the present purpose. Absolutive, as basque grammatical cases as none of them develop from further grammaticalization of cases...

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